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時間:2022-08-14 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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双语热点:人类文明可以在地下生活吗?******

还记得《流浪地球》中的情节吗?地球表面温度下降到零下80多度,人类被迫离开了熟悉的地面,来到了地下。 特殊年代里“地下城”成为了地球居民的栖身之所。你是否想象过,如果地球真有一天面临灾难,人类是否可以永久居住于地下呢?

Can Our Civilization Live Underground?

Today, many overpopulated cities face serious expansion issues. They can no longer build up or out, so they build down. Some countries are investing in underground living, but only for short periods, where people would go, for example, to sleep after an entire day’s work.

如今有许多人口密集的大城市都面临着严重的扩张问题。这些城市已经无法再向上搭建、或向外扩展,只能往地下挖掘。有些国家已经开始投资地下生活设施项目,但只能作为短期使用,例如夜间休息。

But what if civilization completely collapsed on the surface due to global warming or a terrible catastrophe? Could humanity live permanently underground?

但如果由于全球变暖或严重灾难,地面文明被彻底摧毁,我们又该怎么办呢?人类能否永久居住于地下?

We need to understand much to answer this question, so let’s dig deep and see if our civilization could go full subterranean.

我们需要了解很多才能回答这个问题,所以让我们先深入挖掘,看看我们的文明是否可以完全进入地下。

Indispensable resources

不可或缺的资源

The first thing that comes to mind when thinking about the possibility of retreating underground is where we’re going to get water, power, and food. And while these things are necessary for us to survive, they won’t be enough if we actually what to live “down under”.

在考虑退居地下的可能性时,首先要想到的就是从哪里获得水、电和食物。虽然这些东西能保证我们生存下去,但还不足以让我们好好“生活”。

A lot of planning and supplies, a capable maintenance team, and seamless mechanisms to handle all the psychological issues involved would be good… for starters.

如果有充分的规划和充足的物资供应、一支优秀精干的维修团队、以及针对心理问题的解决机制,事情就好办多了。不过,这还仅仅是开始而已。

Power sources

能源

Suppose a disastrous event sent us packing underground. In that case, it’s safe to admit that any power sources we relied on while living on the surface are gone.

假设发生了一场惊天灾难,我们不得不收拾行囊、转入地下。可以肯定的是,地面上我们原本赖以生存的任何电力来源此时都已不复存在。

Plopping down solar panels might not be possible. Depending on surface conditions after a disaster, we probably wouldn’t be able to venture out to maintain them, and there’s always the chance that they wouldn’t get any sun, anyways.

将太阳能电池板带到地下恐怕不行。考虑到灾难发生后的地表状况,我们可能无法回到地面将其取回,更何况它们在地下大概率晒不到一点阳光。

At this point, our better shot would be digging down instead of up and trying to take energy from the Earth itself. We could take advantage of geothermal energy, provided by the heat of our planet’s core, extracted from hot water and rocks.

也许更好的选择是向下挖,尝试利用地球本身的能量。我们可以考虑利用地核热量提供的地热能,从热水和岩石中设法提取出这些能量、加以利用。

Water

Speaking of water, there’s no way we would be able to leave our bunkers to go fetch some after a cataclysmic event hit us. If the surface was hospitable enough, we could set up a rainwater collector, but that wouldn’t provide enough water for everyone (and who knows what’s in the water?)

说到水,在灾难发生之后,我们不可能离开掩体去取水。假如地表条件不算太糟糕,我们可以设立一座雨水收集器,但恐怕不够满足所有人的需求(况且谁知道水里含有什么成分呢?)

Luckily, underground we can find naturally occurring aquifers containing groundwater. This would work as a great source of water, provided we could purify it before consuming it and contain the source before it flooded us.

还好,我们可以在地下找到一些天然蓄水层。假如我们在用水前能够先将其提纯、并保证水源不会泛滥,这些蓄水层将成为绝佳的用水来源。

Food

食物

Stocking up on canned food and other non-perishable meals would be a great idea, but it would only last for a short while. If we could bring farm animals with us underground, that could work, but we would need a way to sustain them if they were to sustain us. But we can’t forsake the vegetarians!

储存罐头食品等耐放食物虽是个好主意,但并非长久之计。如果能将家畜带入地下,倒是能解决问题,但要想让它们喂饱我们,我们得先设法养活它们才行。更何况我们还得考虑素食主义者的需求。

Hydroponic gardens are commonly used nowadays and could be a valuable source of leafy greens, vegetables, herbs, and fruit underground. This agricultural concept would allow us to save space and water while still providing food with a high nutrient content that could potentially sustain us all.

水培蔬菜如今已经十分常见,在地下或可使用此法培植蔬菜、草药和水果。这种农业理念不仅省水、省空间,还能为我们提供维持我们所有人生存的大量富含营养的食物。

Sewage

污水

No one ever wants to address this stinky bit, but we would have to find a way to manage sewage and wastewater successfully. Simply letting it pile up somewhere around us wouldn’t end up well, as we’d get sick pretty quickly.

没人想和这些又脏又臭的东西打交道,但我们总得找到一种有效的污水及废水管理方法,不能任由它们汇集堆积到一处,否则我们很快就会生病。

Depending on the crops we plant, we might consider using the waste as fertilizer, but we would need some proper ventilation. If we managed to build into a mountain or somewhere that’s still above sea level; we might try to find a water source that could drain the waste away to the ocean (it’s not like we’d be worried about the environment after a total catastrophe).

取决于我们种植的是哪些作物,我们不妨考虑将废水用作肥料,但前提是保证充足的通风。如果我们的藏身地在山里、或者任何高于海平面的地方,我们说不定还能找到一处水源,可以借此将废水排到大海里。

Overcoming fears

压倒一切的恐惧

For many people, the idea of being confined underground can be terrifying. Not seeing the sun, not being able to breathe fresh air, not being able to get away in the case of a fire or flood, and even the idea that everything will collapse are some of the anxiety-inducing thoughts that cross people’s minds.

对许多人而言,光是被关在地下这件事就已经够恐怖了。看不到太阳,呼吸不到新鲜的空气,发生火灾或洪水时无处可逃,头顶的“天”甚至还可能塌下来,许多人都会被这些念头弄得焦虑不已。

Gunnar D. Jenssen, a researcher at SINTEF, in Norway, who studies underground psychology and space design, found that about 3% of people are severely claustrophobic. Still, there are some ways to counter their fears.

研究地下心理学与空间设计的古纳尔•D•延森发现,约3%的人患有严重的幽闭恐惧症。不过,这种恐惧心理还是有方法应对的。

“If you give these people something that gives them perceived control over the situation, they accept being in it. That is the key,” Jenssen said. He added that clean air and space are essential in these situations. Or at least a perception of space created by an illusion.

“关键在于,如果让人们觉得自己拥有对局势的掌控权,他们就会接受身处其中。”延森指出。他还补充道,干净的空气和空间在这种情况下至关重要,哪怕是通过幻觉创造出的空间感也好。

Jenssen worked on 4 of the longest tunnels in the world, creating illusions of space by adding well-lit oases with palm trees and sky illusions along the route. “You have a feeling of breathing space, a feeling of being outside, even though you’re 1,000 meters underground going through a mountain,” he said.

延森曾参与过全世界四条最长的隧道项目,在沿线设置了一系列光线明亮的“绿洲”,种植了棕榈树,还模拟了天空的效果,以此创造出空间开阔的幻觉。“尽管你头上压着1000米高的山脉,你却会觉得自己身在户外。”

Lack of sunlight

缺少阳光

The sun is our most significant source of vitamin D, and without it, we quickly become more depressed and irritable. But our “sunlight” doesn’t necessarily need to come from the sun. As long as we have a stable power source, we can use LED lamps that offer safe UV wavelengths allowing us to produce the vitamin D we need. Our crops can benefit from these light sources too! And if that doesn’t work, we can work our way around it by taking supplements or eating fortified foods.

阳光是我们最主要的维生素D来源。没有阳光,我们很快就会变得情绪低落、焦虑易怒。但“阳光”并不一定来自太阳。只要我们有稳定的电力来源,就可以用LED灯提供安全的紫外光照明,让我们可以合成身体所需的维生素D。不仅如此,这些光照对农作物也非常重要。而且如果这种方法不可行,我们还可以通过服用膳食补充剂、或是摄入营养含量更高的食品解决这一问题。

There are also some mental issues related to the lack of sunlight, like Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), where people feel more depressed as the days get shorter and there’s less sunlight exposure during the day. Fortunately, there are already some tools in the market that can help you cope with SAD, like therapy lamps that provide artificial sunlight.

缺乏阳光还会引发精神问题,比如季节性情绪失调(SAD):当白昼时间变短、阳光照射量变少时,人们会更容易感到抑郁。好在市场上已经出现了一些有助于解决季节性情绪失调的工具,比如提供人造阳光的灯具。

Underground living in the present

目前的地下生活

Many important parts of our daily lives exist “buried” under the ground, like power, information net works, water, sewage pipes, basements, tunnels, and subway systems. However, in some places, you can already find people who actually live underground.

目前,我们日常生活的许多组成部分都“埋”在地下,比如供电系统、信息网络、水、污水管道、地下室、隧道、地铁等等。但在有些地方,已经有人实打实地住在地下了。

Coober Pedy, a small town just north of Adelaide, in South Australia, is pretty much inhospitable. Temperatures can reach 50ºC, but that didn’t drive the residents away. It drove them down.

例如,在澳大利亚南部有一座名叫库伯佩迪的小镇,那里气候炎热、不适宜居住,地表温度可高达50摄氏度。但当地居民并没有选择离开,而是选择“向下”发展。

Singapore, one of the most populated countries globally, is considering building an Underground Science City (USC). This subterranean science community (40 caverns of labs and data centers) would be made about 80 meters below the surface of Kent Ridge Park and could potentially house over 4 thousand researchers.

新加坡是全球人口最密集的国家之一。该国正在考虑打造一座“地下科学城”,位于肯特岗公园地表下方80米处,由40座实验室和数据中心构成,可容纳超过4000名研究人员。

In the case of a total planetary catastrophe, things would be a lot different because there could be the possibility of never being able to leave. That scenario would require us to implement new power sources, food, water, and overall living. Depending on the time we had to plan, a lot of luck would also come into play.

但假如真的发生了全球性大灾难,情况又有所不同,因为我们也许只能彻底迁居地下、永无“出头”之日。在这种情况下,我们必须部署全新的能源、食物和水源。另外,我们还需要很多很多好运气。

陕西新增15家4A级旅游景区 名单公布******

  华商报讯(记者李怡)日前,陕西省文化和旅游厅发布公告,确定15家旅游景区为国家4A级旅游景区。分别为:西安市广仁寺文化景区、宝鸡市长乐塬抗战工业遗址景区、咸阳市昭陵景区、铜川市溪山胜境景区、渭南市博物馆景区、延安市秋林抗战纪念地景区、延安市甘泉大峡谷景区、榆林市石峁遗址文化旅游区、榆林市碧麟湾景区、榆林市名州古城景区、汉中市张骞墓景区、汉中市午子山景区、安康市雁山瀑布景区、商洛市月亮洞景区和商洛市蟒岭绿道景区。

  华商报记者从陕西省文旅厅了解到,至此陕西省4A级景区增加到146家、5A级景区11家。


来源:华商网-华商报

编辑:唐港

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百元级数码好物推荐!第二期******

  上次我们带来了开学季的百元级数码好物推荐,由于篇幅的限制有还会有一产品并未能割刀推荐,此次我们推出百元级数码好物推荐第二期,希望能为大家的购买带来帮助。

  好物1:罗技G102二代游戏鼠标

  罗技G102二代游戏鼠标在外观上和罗技的入门级无线游戏鼠标G304几乎相同,但是采用了有线的设计,而在按键方面的布局上,罗技G102二代游戏鼠标采用了左右对称的布局,在入门级的档位上依然配备了罗技的按键张力系统,触发反馈等感觉更加清脆。

  而在性能方面,由于定位的原因,罗技G102二代游戏鼠标并没有采用到罗技的Hero引擎,在性能上相比较于G304也有所逊色,但其依然拥有不错的表现七DPI可以在200-8000之间进行调节,能很好的满足大部分用户的需求。并且其配备了罗技的一系列技术,能进一步降低延迟,响应速度能达到1ms的优秀水平。

  罗技G102二代游戏鼠标还配备了RGB灯效,作为一款入门级的有线游戏鼠标来说,是一个不错的选择,并且在活动时能达到100元以下的价格,性价比极高。

  好物2:米家便携电热杯 

  对于很多的朋友来说,出外旅行来上一杯热水能极大提升幸福感。对于很多人来说,因为一系列的问题导致了了他们要喝热水或者温水才不会出现身体不适。但是在酒店等环境中,共用的水壶会让很多人不敢使用,烧一壶热水成为了摆在很多人面前的问题。

  一款自用的保温杯,并且配备的烧水功能的产品应该是一个不错的选择。米家便携电热杯就是一个可以考虑的产品。价格在百元附近,容量为350ml,杯身内部采用双层304不锈钢,无尾抽真空工艺,常温环境下,可以保温6小时。

  而在加热功能方面,米家便携电热杯采用了插拔式电源接口设计,最大功率为350W,对于一些限制功率的场景也能较好的使用。而在保障烧水的安全性方面,米家便携电热杯采用了蜂窝式烧水盖支持开盖烧水,避免气压过大产生安全风险,水煮沸时能有效防止飞溅。米家便携电热杯还配备了实时监测杯内温度的防干烧保护功能还有倾倒保护功能。

  米家便携电热杯还配备了收纳袋等配件,方便用户出门携带使用。

  好物3:米家空调伴侣2

  对于很多的朋友来说,在家中的老旧空调或者在学校宿舍中的旧空调并没有赶上智能化家居的步伐,在使用上只能依赖于用户手动的进行遥控开关,在人性化使用上相当不便。但是现在市面上出的空调伴侣等产品能让老旧的空调有更进一步的智能化能力,在使用上带来更好的体验,

  米家空调伴侣2就是其中一个不错的选择,其自带电量统计功能,能统计出空调所使用的电量情况,对于学校宿舍环境中使用时,能帮助用户有效统计电量信息,得知空调消耗的电量情况。通过计算空调的消耗情况,可进一步推算宿舍电卡余额,进行及时的补充缴费。

  米家空调伴侣2还具备远程控制的功能,对于很多的朋友来说,这一个功能可以在用户出外的同时,通过远程控制对家中的空调进行操作,可以在归途中对空调进行提前打开,是用户在抵达室内时就能进入到温度较为适宜的环境中,能进一步提升用户使用的幸福感。

  米家空调伴侣2还具备和小米旗下其他智能家电产品或者传感器进行联动,用户可以和温度传感器进行联动,当温度低于或者高于某一个设定时,进行空调温度的自动化调整,使室内温度保持在一个较为稳定的范围内,并且还支持通过小爱同学等进行操作,整体使用较为便捷,也能较好提示生活体验。

  好物4:亿色 磁吸充电宝10000毫安时

  对于不少购买了iPhone12/13系列的朋友来说,近两年苹果的新手机均配备了磁吸功能,可以搭配苹果官方推出的一系列MagSafe套件,装载卡包、或者使用到磁吸充电宝进行充电。

  但是苹果官方推出的MagSafe充电宝价格极为高贵,官方售价为749元,并且能为手iPhone所补充到的电量也不多,所以在现阶段的市场上就有很多的第三方推出了一系列兼容MagSafe的充电宝等产品。

  亿色 磁吸充电宝10000毫安时就对苹果的做出了兼容,能通过磁吸的方式对支持磁吸的iPhone设备进行充电。除了磁吸充电外,还兼容其他的手机进行无线充电输出。亿色 磁吸充电宝10000毫安时还具备有线输出的功能,在输出功率方面最高能达到18W有线输出和15W的无线输出,在输入方面支持最高18W的输入。

  而现阶段iPhone13的电池容量也达到了3000毫安时以上,所以亿色 磁吸充电宝10000毫安时大致能为iPhone13提供两次多一点点的充电,也是较为实用的产品。在售价方面,这一款产品价格为169左右,相比较于官方也是便宜了非常多,但是缺点就是没有官方那么的轻薄,也是有利有弊的一个选择,具体的话各位可以根据自己的需求进行衡量。

Slovak skier Vlhova repeats slalom double in Levi******

BRATISLAVA, Nov. 22 (Xinhua) -- Slovak alpine skier Petra Vlhova repeated her stellar performance from last year and won both slalom races in the Finnish resort of Levi, tying US star Mikaela Shiffrin for first place in the FIS World Cup standings on Sunday.。

Identical to Saturday, Shiffrin placed second, trailing by 0.47 seconds, while German Lena Duerr finished third with 0.78 seconds more on the clock.。

The 26-year-old Vlhova produced four perfect runs and a deja vu-like performance, taking home a double win in the two opening slalom races, exactly like a year before.。

With five victories in Levi under her belt, she became the most successful skier to ever compete there.。

"I feel like my slalom performance is different. I made changes to my team, I have a new coach Mauro Pini and it shows on the track. I am more satisfied and happy. I feel physically stronger," explained Vlhova after the superb weekend.。

The podium looked the same as on Saturday with Shiffrin on second and the biggest surprise of the season Lena Duerr of Germany in third.。

Vlhova was gifted another reindeer calf by the organizers, her fifth overall. "I will probably start a reindeer farm soon. I will call this one Boris after my brother who is a great support, always with me at the start," she said.。

The next event on the schedule is the Giant Slalom in Killington, the United States. Enditem。

古特雷斯谴责对联合国驻中非共和国维和部队的袭击

1.核心产业规模超4000亿元 人工智能与实体经济加速融合

2.航天工程大学举办首届研究生学术活动节

3.80后博士女干部提名厅长 政坛80后厅局级崭露头角

4.一分钟告诉你!北京八达岭长城应该怎么玩?

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